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Вы здесь » Аргентина по-русски » изучение испанского языка » Разговорный испанский, с английскими пояснениями.

Разговорный испанский, с английскими пояснениями.

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На этом сайте представлен сериал Mi vida loca, для тех, кто только начал изучать испанчский, там есть и пояснения и задания, но все на английском языке.
Чтобы включить новый эпизод надо нажать- Watch the full interactive episode

Сайт- http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/spanish/mividaloca/ep01/




Formation of the Present and Past Participles in Spanish
Formation of the present participle in Spanish

A present participle is a verb form which, in English, ends in-ing; for example,singing, eating, receiving.

In Spanish, a present participle is regularly formed as follows:
drop the ar of ar-ar ending verb, like cantar, and add ando: cantando/singing
drop the er of an-er ending verb, like comer, and add iendo: comiendo/eating
drop the ir of an -ir ending verb, like recibir, and add iendo: recibiendo/receiving

In English, a gerund also ends in-ing, but there is a distinct difference in use between a gerund and a present participle in English. In brief, it is this: in English,
when a present participle is used as a noun it is called a gerund; for example, Reading is good.
As a present participle in English, it would be used as follows:
While reading, the boy fell asleep.
In the first example (Reading is good), reading is a gerund because it is the sub- ject of the verb is.
In Spanish, however, we do not use the present participle form as a noun to serve as a subject; we use the infinitive form of the verb: Leer es bueno.

Common irregular present participles
caer- to fall
conseguir-to attain, to achieve
consiguiendo-attaining, achieving
construir-to construct
corregir-to correct
creer-to believe
decir-to say, to tell
diciendo-saying, telling
despedirse-to say good-bye
despidiéndose-saying good-bye
destruir-to destroy
divertirse-to enjoy oneself
divirtiéndose-enjoying oneself
dormir-to sleep
huir-to flee
ir-to go
leer-to read
mentir-to lie (tell a falsehood)
morir-to die
oír-to hear
pedir-to ask (for), to request
pidiendo-asking (for), requesting
poder-to be able
pudiendo-being able
reír-to laugh
repetir-to repeat
seguir-to follow
sentir-to feel

Common irregular present participles (continued)
servir-to serve
traer-to bring
venir-to come
vestir-to dress
vestirse-to dress oneself
vistiéndose-dressing oneself

Uses of the present participle
1. To form the progressive tenses:
The Progressive Present is formed by using estar in the present tense plus the present participle of the main verb you are using.
The Progressive Past is formed by using estar in the imperfect indica- tive plus the present participle of the main verb you are using. (See below and
on page 5 for a complete description of the uses and formation of the progres- sive tenses with examples.)

2. To express vividly an action that occurred (preterit + present participle):
El niño entró llorando en la casa/ The little boy came into the house crying.

3. To express the English use of by+ present participle in Spanish, we use the gerund form, which has the same ending as a present participle explained
above: Trabajando, se gana dinero /By working, one earns (a person earns) money;
Estudiando mucho, Pepe recibió buenas notas /By studying hard, Joe received good grades.

Note that no preposition is used in front of the present participle (the Spanishgerund) even though it is expressed in English al by + present participle.
Note, too, that in Spanish we use al + inf. (not + present part.) to express on or upon + present part. in English:
Al entrar en la casa, el niño comenzó a llorar/Upon entering the house, the little boy began to cry.

4. To form the Perfect Participle: habiendo hablado/having talked.

The Progressive forms of tenses
(1) In Spanish, there are progressive forms of tenses. They are the Progressive Present and the Progressive Past.
(2) The Progressive Present is formed by using estar in the present tense plus the present participle of your main verb; e.g.,
Estoy hablando/I am talking, i.e., I am (in the act of) talking (right now). Here is how you would form the progressive present of hablar (to talk) using
estar in the present tense plus the present participle of hablar.



Common irregular past participles
abrir-to open
caer-to fall
creer-to believe
cubrir-to cover
decir-to say, to tell
dicho-said, told
descubrir-to discover
deshacer-to undo
devolver-to return (something)
devuelto-returned (something)
escribir-to write
hacer-to do, to make
hecho-done, made
imponer-to impose
imprimir-to print
ir-to go
leer-to read
morir-to die
oír-to hear
poner-to put
poseer-to possess
rehacer-to redo, to remake
rehecho-redone, remade
reír-to laugh
resolver-to resolve, to solve
resuelto-resolved, solved
romper-to break
sonreír-to smile
traer-to bring
ver-to see
volver-to return

Uses of the past participle
1. To form the seven compound tenses
2. To form the Perfect Infinitive:-haber hablado-/to have spoken.

3. To form the Perfect Participle:-habiendo hablado/having spoken.

4. To serve as an adjective, which must agree in gender and number with the-noun it modifies:
El señor Molina es muy respetado por todos los alumnos/Mr. Molina is very respected by all the students;
La señora González es muy-conocida/Mrs. González is very well known.

5. To express the result of an action with-estar-and sometimes with quedar orquedarse:
La puerta está abierta/ The door is open;Las cartas están escritas/ The letters are written;
Los niños se quedaron asustados/ The children remained frightened.

6. To express the passive voice with ser:
La ventana fue abierta por el ladrón/The window was opened by the robber.



Passive Voice and Active Voice
Passive voice means that the action of the verb falls on the subject; in other words, the subject receives the action:
La ventana fue abierta por el ladrón /The window was opened by the robber. Note that abierta (really a form of the past part. abrir/abierto) is used as an adjective and it must agree in gender and num-ber with the subject that it describes.
Active voice means that the subject performs the action and the subject is alwaysstated:
El ladrón abrió la ventana/The robber opened the window.
To form the true passive, use ser + the past part. of the verb you have in mind;
the past part. then serves as an adjective and it must agree in gender and number with the subject that it describes. In the true passive, the agent (the doer) is always expressed with the prep.por in front of it. The formula for the true passive construction is: subject + tense of ser + past part. + por
+ the agent (the doer):
Estas composiciones fueron escritas por Juan/ These compositions were written by John.

The reflexive pronoun se may be used to substitute for the true passive voice con-struction. When you use these construction, the subject is a thing (not a person) and the doer (agent) is not stated:

Aquí se habla español /Spanish is spoken here;
Aquí se hablan español e inglés/Spanish and English are spoken here;
Se venden libros en esta tienda/Books are sold in this store.
There are a few standard idiomatic expressions that are commonly used with the pronoun se.
These expressions are not truly passive, the pronoun se is not truly a reflexive pronoun, and the verb form is in the 3rd pers. sing. only. In this con-
struction, there is no subject expressed; the subject is contained in the use of se + the 3rd pers. sing. of the verb at all times and the common translations into English are: it is . . . , people . . . , they . . . , one . . . Se cree que. . . It is believed that . . . , people believe that . . . , they believe
that . . . , one believes that . . .
Se cree que este criminal es culpable.
It is believed that this criminal is guilty.
Se dice que. . .It is said that . . . , people say that . . . , they say that . . . , one says that . . . , you say . . .
Se dice que va a nevar esta noche.
They say that it’s going to snow tonight.
¿Cómo se dice en español “ice cream”?
How do you say ice cream in Spanish?
Se sabe que. . .It is known that . . . , people know that . . . , they know that . . . ,one knows that . . .
Se sabe que María va a casarse con Juan./People know that Mary is going to marry John.
The se reflexive pronoun construction is avoided if the subject is a person because there can be ambiguity in meaning. For example, how would you trans-
late the following into English?
Se da un regalo.
Which of the following two meanings is intended? She (he) is being given a present, or She (he) is giving a present to himself (to herself). In correct Spanish, you would have to say:
Le da

The Spanish Infinitive and Its Principal Uses (a María, a Juan, etc.) un regalo/He (she) is giving a present to Mary (to John, etc.). Avoid using the
se construction in the passive when the subject is a person; change your sentence around and state it in the active voice to make the meaning
clear. Otherwise, the pronoun se seems to go with the verb, as if the verb is reflexive, which gives an entirely different meaning. Another example:
Se miró would mean He (she) looked at himself (herself), not
He (she) was looked at!
If you mean to say
He (she) looked at her, say:
La miró
or, if in the plural, say:
La miraron /They looked at her.

The Spanish Infinitive and Its Principal Uses An infinitive is a verb that is not inflected; in other words, it does not change in form by inflection. In grammar, inflection takes place when a verb changes in form according to whether the subject of the sentence is singular in the 1st (yo), 2nd(tú),
or 3rd (Ud., él, ella) person, or plural (nosotros,etc.), and according tothe conjugated form of the verb in a particular tense, such as the present, preterit,
imperfect, future, etc. An infinitive is generally considered to be a mood and itdoes not refer to a particular person, number, or tense. It is indeterminate andgeneral. It is not conjugated in the tenses. The verb, however, is inflected because
it is conjugated in the various tenses and changes in form. An infinitive remains in the same form:
hablar, comer, vivir.

In English, an infinitive is recognized by the preposition to
in front of it, as in
to speak, to eat, to live.
When conjugated,to speak changes to he, she speaks, I spoke, we have spoken, etc. The change in the verb form is called inflection. The form of an infinitive is always the same because it is not conjugated and it is not inflected.

Here are three principal uses of the Spanish infinitive. For more examples in Spanish and English, please turn to page 669 where you will find an outline of
what preposition (if any) goes with what verb plus an infinitive.

1. An infinitive can be used as a noun and it is masculine in gender. In English we use the present participle of a verb to function as a noun, in which case,
we call it a gerund.
In Spanish, however, the infinitive form of a verb is used. Examples:
Leer es bueno/El leer es bueno/Reading is good.
Fumar no es bueno para la salud/Smoking is not good for one’s health.

2. An infinitive is used with some finite verbs (those that are conjugated in the various tenses) when affirmation or belief is conveyed. Examples:
María siempre cree tener razón/Mary always believes she is right.
Nosotros podemos venir a tu casa esta noche/We can come to your house tonight (this evening).

3. An infinitive can be used with idiomatic expressions that contain que or de.
Tengo mucho que hacer esta mañana/I have a lot to do this morning.
Mis amigos acaban de llegar/My friends have jus


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